Emission Impossible Ltd

Flower

Archive for January, 2018

Consolidated biking statistics

We were introduced to Bikemunk, a handy website (not just for biking enthusiasts) which consolidates resources about various cycling statistics including related environmental and health statistics. Statistics from Bikemunk describe research conducted in 1995 which compared the exposure of cyclists, car drivers and pedestrians to traffic related pollutants. The 1995 study is consistent with the research we described in an earlier post showing that the health benefits of being outside (cycling or walking) outweigh the costs and risks of breathing in pollution.

2017 US EPA Integrated Science Assessment – Sulphur Dioxide

In December 2017, the US EPA published an updated integrated science assessment for sulphur dioxide using research published to end August 2016. Key findings on causality are summarised below as compared with the 2008 assessment.

The assessment also noted that reproductive and developmental effects were inadequate to infer a causal relationship for a wide range of exposure durations.

It should be noted that the assessment did not consider transformation products such as sulfate (these being considered in the integrated science assessment for particulate matter, US EPA, 2009).

Full assessment here:

 

Table 1. Causal determinations: short-term exposure*

Health effect category 2008 SOx ISA 2017 SOx ISA
Respiratory effects Causal relationship Causal relationship
Cardiovascular effects Inadequate to infer a causal relationship Inadequate to infer a causal relationship
Total mortality Suggestive of, but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship Suggestive of, but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship

*Short-term exposure refers to time periods of minutes up to 1 month

 

Table 2. Causal determinations: long-term exposure**

Health effect category 2008 SOx ISA 2017 SOx ISA
Respiratory effects Inadequate to infer a causal relationship Suggestive of, but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship
Cardiovascular effects Not included Inadequate to infer a causal relationship
Total mortality Inadequate to infer a causal relationship Inadequate to infer a causal relationship
Cancer Inadequate to infer a causal relationship Inadequate to infer a causal relationship

*Long-term exposure refers to time periods of more than one month to year.